Temperatures in China have plunged to their lowest in almost three decades, freezing coastal waters and trapping 1,000 ships in ice.
Since late November the country has withstood average temperatures of -3.8C, 1.3C colder than average and the chilliest for 28 years.
The bitter cold has even frozen the sea in Laizhou Bay on the coast of Shandong province in the east, stranding nearly 1,000 ships, the China Daily newspaper reported.
Transport around the country has been severely disrupted.
More than 140 flights from the state capital airport in central Hunan province were delayed, while heavy snowfall forced the closure of some sections of the Beijing-Hong Kong-Macau Expressway, the newspaper said.
Temperatures in the north east fell even further, reaching a 43-year low of -15.3C, about 3.7C below normal.
One truck driver in southeastern Jiangxi province, caught in a three-mile queue caused by a pileup, said the extreme cold had caught him by surprise.
"I didn't expect such a situation, so I've brought no warm coats or food. All I can do now is wait," said Yao Xuefeng.
The cold weather has seen prices of food including pork rise, according to official data.
Pork prices have risen by more than 5%, triggering fears of price hikes during forthcoming festivals.